.

Sunday, February 15, 2015

UK 2015
Inventive Britain







ISSUE DATE: 19 February 2014
NOMINAL VALUE: 1st, 81p, £1.28, £1.47
STAMP DESIGN: GBH
ILLUSTRATIONS: -
PRINTER: International Security Printers
GUM: PVA
PRINTING PROCESS: Lithography
STAMP SIZE: 35 mm x 35 mm
PERFORATIONS: 14.5 x 14.5
SHEET LAYOUT: 30/60
PHOSPHOR: Bars as appropriate



Presented in four se-tenant strips of two, the Mint Stamps feature six original visual interpretations of the key functions of Colossus, Catseyes, Stainless Steel, Carbon Fibre, DNA Sequencing and i-limb by GBH, plus CGI depictions of the World Wide Web by Matthew Hurst and Fibre Optics by Gecko Animation.



:: COLOSSUS 




Colossus was the world's first programmable, electronic, digital computer. The Colossus computers were developed for British codebreakers during World War II to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher. Without them, the Allies would have been deprived of the very valuable military intelligence that was obtained from reading the vast quantity of encrypted high-level telegraphic messages between the German High Command (OKW) and their army commands throughout occupied Europe. Colossus used thermionic valves (vacuum tubes and thyratrons) to perform Boolean operations and calculations. Colossus was designed by the engineer Tommy Flowers to solve a problem posed by mathematician Max Newman at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park. Alan Turing's use of probability in cryptanalysis contributed to its design. It has sometimes been erroneously stated that Turing designed Colossus to aid the Cryptanalysis of the Enigma. Turing's machine that helped decode Enigma was the electromechanical Bombe, not Colossus.


BUILDING A REPLICA
Construction of a fully functional replica of a Colossus Mark 2 was undertaken by a team led by Tony Sale. In spite of the blueprints and hardware being destroyed, a surprising amount of material survived, mainly in engineers' notebooks, but a considerable amount of it in the U.S. The optical tape reader might have posed the biggest problem, but Dr. Arnold Lynch, its original designer, was able to redesign it to his own original specification. The reconstruction is on display, in the historically correct place for Colossus No. 9, at The National Museum of Computing, in H Block Bletchley Park in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire.




:: CAT'S EYE 
The cat's eye is a retroreflective safety device used in road marking and was the first of a range of raised pavement markers. It originated in the UK in 1933 and is today used all over the world. It consists (in its original form) of two pairs of reflective glass spheres set into a white rubber dome, mounted in a cast-iron housing. This is the kind that marks the centre of the road, with one pair of cat's eyes showing in each direction. 




Cat's eyes are particularly valuable in fog and are largely resistant to damage from snow ploughs. A key feature of the cat's eye is the flexible rubber dome which is occasionally deformed by the passage of traffic. A fixed rubber wiper cleans the surface of the reflectors as they sink below the surface of the road (the base tends to hold water after a shower of rain, making this process even more efficient). The rubber dome is protected from impact damage by metal 'kerbs' – which also give tactile and audible feedback for wandering drivers.


:: WORLD WIDE WEB 




:: FIBER OPTICS 




:: STAINLESS STEEL 





:: CARBON FIBRE 





:: DNA SEQUENCING 




:: i-LIMB BIONIC HAND 



The i-LIMB Hand is the brand name of world's first commercially available bionic hand invented by David Gow and his team at the Bioengineering Centre of the Princess Margaret Rose Hospital in Edinburgh, and manufactured by Touch Bionics

The articulating prosthetic hand has individually powered digits and thumb and has a choice of grips. It was launched in Vancouver in July 2007. 



i-LIMB Hand won the Limbless Association's Prosthetic Product Innovation Award for 2008, was listed at number fourteen in the TIME's list of the Top 50 Best Inventions of 2008, and Touch EMAS/Touch Bionics was awarded The Queen's Award for Enterprise: Innovation (Technology) (2010) for the i-LIMB Hand.





:: PRESENTATION PACK




:: PRESTIGE BOOK FIRST DAY COVER





:: FIRST DAY COVER (FDC)









:: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Colossus, Catseyes, Stainless Steel, Carbon Fibre, DNA Sequencing and i-limb stamp imagery created by GBH, 2015 © Royal Mail Group Ltd 2015; World Wide Web – Internet blog map image © Matthew Hurst/Science Photo Library; Fibre Optics – CGI illustration by Gecko Animation Limited; Catseyes is a registered trade mark of Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd; i-limb is a registered trade mark of Touch EMAS Limited t/a Touch Bionics

:: Stamp images thanks to Royal Mail
 Czech Post COLLECTORZPEDIA