Wednesday, March 18, 2015

South Korea 2014
International Congress of Mathematicians Seoul 2014

 :: THEME: Congress of Mathematicians Seoul 2014
  :: DENOMINATIONS: 2 x 300 Won, 540 Won
   :: ISSUE DATE: 15 July 2014
    :: DESIGN: Jaeyong Shin 

The film "A Beautiful Mind" is based on the life of mathematical genius John Nash, the Nobel Laureate in Economics who suffered from schizophrenia. John Nash delivered a public lecture at the International Congress of Mathematicians in 2002. During this International Congress, also known as the "Olympics"for mathematicians, prominent mathematicians, the world over, gather to evaluate recent significant mathematical achievements and to lead lectures and discussions on the different areas of mathematics. In addition, major mathematical problems are sometimes laid out for the next century.

During one such congress in

Paris in 1900, German mathematician, David Hilbert 
outlined 23 mathematical problems which mapped the direction for the study of mathematics in the 20th century. First convened in Zurich in 1897, the International Congress of Mathematicians is held every four years under the auspices of the International Mathematical Union. One highlight during the opening ceremony of the congress is the awarding of the Fields Medal, designed to honour mathematicians under 40 years of age who have accomplished a remarkable mathematical achievement.

Often described as the Nobel Prize of Mathematics the Fields Medal is viewed as the greatest honour for mathematicians. The chosen candidates are not announced right up until the congress, which attracts world-wide attention. 

The International Congress of Mathematicians Seoul 2014 took place in COEX, Seoul(13-21 August) under the theme, "Dreams and Hopes for Late Starters". With the aid of the International Mathematical Union, Korea, which had previously experienced hard times, was first able to participate in the International Congress of Mathematicians.

Now, as the host country the Seoul congress also provids travel grants for mathematicians from developing countries. About 5,000 mathematicians from around 100 countries visited congress helping the youth of Korea take a more active interest in basic science.

"All is number", Pythagoras, a Greek mathematician said. International Congress of Mathematicians wants to draw attention to the value of mathematics, which has contributed to human civilization. The commemorative stamps featuring "Pythagorean Theorem", Euler's theorem giving necessary and sufficient conditions of a graph having an Eulerian tour," and "Pascal's Triangle" are all issued.

Title: International Congress of Mathematicians Seoul 2014
Date of Issue: 2014-07-15
Quantity: 334000
Printing Process & Colors: 3
Sheet Composition: 5 X 3
Paper: 13
Printer: Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation
Types: 3 
Denomination: 300 won
Stamp No.: 2989
Size of Stamp: 36mm
Image Area: 36mm X 34mm
Perforation: 13
Designer: Shin Jaeyong

In mathematics, Pascal's triangle is a triangular array of the binomial coefficients. It is named after the French mathematician Blaise Pascal in much of the Western world, although other mathematicians studied it centuries before him in India, Iran, China, Germany, and Italy.

The rows of Pascal's triangle are conventionally enumerated starting with row n = 0 at the top. The entries in each row are numbered from the left beginning with k = 0 and are usually staggered relative to the numbers in the adjacent rows. A simple construction of the triangle proceeds in the following manner. On row 0, write only the number 1. Then, to construct the elements of following rows, add the number above and to the left with the number above and to the right to find the new value. If either the number to the right or left is not present, substitute a zero in its place. For example, the first number in the first row is 1 (the sum of 0 and 1), whereas the numbers 1 and 3 in the third row are added to produce the number 4 in the fourth row.

This construction is related to the binomial coefficients by Pascal's rule, which says that if


for any non-negative integer n and any integer k between 0 and n.

Pascal's triangle has higher dimensional generalizations. The three-dimensional version is called Pascal's pyramid or Pascal's tetrahedron, while the general versions are called Pascal's simplices.

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem or Pythagoras' theorem is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. The theorem can be written as an equation relating the lengths of the sides a, b and c, often called the Pythagorean equation:

a2+ b2= c2

where c represents the length of the hypotenuse, and a and b represent the lengths of the other two sides.

Leonhard Euler (15 April 1707 18 September 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. He is also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory.

:: A Portrait by Jakob Emanuel Handmann (1756) 
:: A Cover of Euler's "Methodus inveniendi lineas curvas

Euler is considered to be the pre-eminent mathematician of the 18th century and one of the greatest mathematicians to have ever lived. He is also one of the most prolific mathematicians; his collected works fill 60–80 quarto volumes. He spent most of his adult life in St. Petersburg, Russia, and in Berlin, Prussia.

A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: 

"Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all."

Old Swiss 10 Franc banknote honoring L. Euler ::

A Leonhard's signature ::