:: COUNTRY:

**SOUTH KOREA**

:: THEME:

**Congress of Mathematicians Seoul 2014**

:: DENOMINATIONS:

**2 x 300 Won, 540 Won**

:: ISSUE DATE:

**15 July 2014**

:: DESIGN:

**Jaeyong Shin**

The film "

**A Beautiful Mind**" is based on the life of mathematical genius**John Nash**, the**Nobel Laureate in Economics**who suffered from schizophrenia.**John Nash**delivered a public lecture at the**International Congress of Mathematicians**in 2002. During this International Congress, also known as the "**Olympics**"**for mathematician**s, prominent mathematicians, the world over, gather to evaluate recent significant mathematical achievements and to lead lectures and discussions on the different areas of mathematics. In addition, major mathematical problems are sometimes laid out for the next century.
During one such congress in

Paris in 1900, German mathematician,

outlined 23 mathematical problems which mapped the direction for the study of mathematics in the 20th century. First convened in Zurich in 1897, the **David Hilbert****International Congress of Mathematicians**is held every four years under the auspices of the

**International Mathematical Union**. One highlight during the opening ceremony of the congress is the awarding of the

**Fields Medal**, designed to honour mathematicians under 40 years of age who have accomplished a remarkable mathematical achievement.

Often described as the

**Nobel Prize of Mathematics**the**Fields Medal**is viewed as the greatest honour for mathematicians. The chosen candidates are not announced right up until the congress, which attracts world-wide attention.
The

**International Congress of Mathematicians Seoul 2014**took place in**COEX**, Seoul(13-21 August) under the theme, "**Dreams and Hopes for Late Starters**". With the aid of the**International Mathematical Union**, Korea, which had previously experienced hard times, was first able to participate in the International Congress of Mathematicians.
Now, as the host country the Seoul congress also provids travel grants for mathematicians from developing countries. About

**5,000 mathematicians**from around**100 countries**visited congress helping the youth of Korea take a more active interest in basic science.
"

**All is number**",**Pythagoras**, a Greek mathematician said. International Congress of Mathematicians wants to draw attention to the value of mathematics, which has contributed to human civilization.**The commemorative stamps featuring "Pythagorean Theorem", Euler's theorem giving necessary and sufficient conditions of a graph having an Eulerian tour," and "Pascal's Triangle" are all issued.**

**:: SPECIFICATION**

Title: International Congress of Mathematicians Seoul 2014

Date of Issue: 2014-07-15

Quantity: 334000

Printing Process & Colors: 3

Sheet Composition: 5 X 3

Paper: 13

Printer: Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation

Types: 3

Denomination: 300 won

Stamp No.: 2989

Size of Stamp: 36mm

Image Area: 36mm X 34mm

Perforation: 13

Designer: Shin Jaeyong

**:: PASCAL'S TRIANGLE**

In mathematics,

**Pascal's triangl**e is a triangular array of the binomial coefficients. It is named after the French mathematician

**Blaise Pascal**in much of the Western world, although other mathematicians studied it centuries before him in India, Iran, China, Germany, and Italy.

The rows of Pascal's triangle are conventionally enumerated starting with row n = 0 at the top. The entries in each row are numbered from the left beginning with k = 0 and are usually staggered relative to the numbers in the adjacent rows. A simple construction of the triangle proceeds in the following manner. On row 0, write only the number 1. Then, to construct the elements of following rows, add the number above and to the left with the number above and to the right to find the new value. If either the number to the right or left is not present, substitute a zero in its place. For example, the first number in the first row is 1 (the sum of 0 and 1), whereas the numbers 1 and 3 in the third row are added to produce the number 4 in the fourth row.

This construction is related to the binomial coefficients by Pascal's rule, which says that if

then

for any non-negative integer n and any integer k between 0 and n.

Pascal's triangle has higher dimensional generalizations. The three-dimensional version is called Pascal's pyramid or Pascal's tetrahedron, while the general versions are called Pascal's simplices.

**:: PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM**

In mathematics, the

**Pythagorean theorem**or Pythagoras' theorem is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. The theorem can be written as an equation relating the lengths of the sides a, b and c, often called the Pythagorean equation:

**a**

^{2}+ b^{2}= c^{2}where c represents the length of the hypotenuse, and a and b represent the lengths of the other two sides.

**:: LEONHARD EULER**

**Leonhard Euler**(15 April 1707 18 September 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as

**infinitesimal calculus**and

**graph theory**. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. He is also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory.

*:: A Portrait by*

**Jakob Emanuel Handmann**(1756)*:: A Cover of Euler's "*

**Methodus inveniendi lineas curvas**"
Euler is considered to be the pre-eminent mathematician of the 18th century and one of the greatest mathematicians to have ever lived. He is also one of the most prolific mathematicians; his collected works fill 60â€“80 quarto volumes. He spent most of his adult life in St. Petersburg, Russia, and in Berlin, Prussia.

A statement attributed to

**Pierre-Simon Laplace**expresses Euler's influence on mathematics:**"Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all."**

Old Swiss 10 Franc banknote honoring L. Euler ::

A Leonhard's signature ::