Wednesday, March 30, 2016

Czech Republic 2016
60 Years of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna

COUNTRY: Czech Republic
ISSUE DATE: 16 March 2016
STAMP SIZE: 30 x 23 mm
 STAMP DESIGN: Zdeněk Ziegler

Theme of this stamp issue is Feynman diagram of neutrinoless double beta decay. In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons inside an atomic nucleus. 

The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, in Russian: Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ) in Dubna in the Moscow Region is an international research centre for nuclear physics and other physical sciences. The institute has 5,500 staff members, 1,200 researchers including 1,000 Ph.D’s from nineteen member states (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, China, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Cuba, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Russia, North Korea, Slovakia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Vietnam). It is also frequented by leading UNESCO, CERN, CLAF, West European and U.S. scientists.

The Institute has eight laboratories, each with its own specialisation:

Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (BLTP), Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies (VBLHE), Laboratory of Particle Physics (LPP), Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (DLNP), Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP), Laboratory of Information Technologies (LIT), and Laboratory of Radiation Biology (LRB), and the University Centre (UC).

These laboratories conduct research in theoretical physics, high energy physics (particle physics), heavy ion physics, low and medium energy physics, neutron physics, condensed matter physics, radiation biology, computer networks, and education programmes in information physics.

Principal research instruments include a particle accelerator 7 GeV, three isochronic cyclotrons (120, 145, 650 MeV), a phasotron (680 MeV) and a synchrophasotron (4 GeV). The neutron laboratory has a neutron fast-pulse reactor with nineteen associated instruments receiving neutron beams from this reactor.

The agreement on the establishment of the Institute was signed on 26 March 1956 in Moscow, with the eminent Chinese physicist Wang Ganchang and Vladimir Veksler among the founders. The institute was established on the basis of two research institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences: the Institute for Nuclear Problems and the Electrophysical Laboratory. Although the first research instrument was built at Dubna in 1947, it was not until the creation of CERN in 1954 that a countervailing group from the West was created.

More than 40 major discoveries have been made in Dubna, such as:

1959 - nonradiative transitions in mesoatoms;
1960 - antisigma-minus hyperon;
1963 - element 102;
1972 - postradiative regeneration of cells;
1973 - quark counting rule;
1975 - phenomenon of slow neutron confinement;
1988 - regularity of resonant formation of muonic molecules in deuterium;
1999-2005 - heavy elements 114, 116, 118, 115 and 113;
2006 - chemical identification of element 112;
2010 - element 117.

In 1961 the JINR Prizes for extraordinary discoveries in nuclear physics were instituted. The first prize for the discovery of antisigma-minus hyperon, at that time still considered an elementary particle, was awarded to Wang Ganchang and Vladimir Veksler.

Facility pictures thanks to JINR
Stamp image and description thanks to Česká pošta